THE NOUN PHRASE

Nama : Rekno Asriani

Kelas : 4EA15

NPM  : 11209137

Tugas  : Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2#

 

THE NOUN PHRASE

The noun phrase is a versatile syntactic element of a sentence. In simple terms, the noun phrase is formed by a noun or pronoun and all the other words which make it a phrase unit. So it can be as short as a single noun or it can be a very long, complex syntactical unit.

A noun phrase is a phrase which includes:

1.      a noun (also called head)

2.      and optionally modifiers.

For example:

Dogs run fast.
They run fast.
Racing dogs run fast.
All racing dogs run fast.
Nearly all my racing dogs run fast.

In the examples above all the additional words in the noun· phrase precede the noun. However, very often the additional words precede and follow the noun.
For example:

The racing dogs from England run fast.
The racing dogs which are placed behind the leader
 run fast.

The central noun around which the noun phrase is formed is known as the ·head – this is the noun to which all the other information in the noun phrase relates.

All noun phrases, whether short and simple or long and complicated, can be categorized as having up to four component parts: the 

  • ·head noun, the determiner, the premodifier and the postmodifier, A noun phrase could simply be a single noun, or it could be a very long noun phrase with several premodifiers and several postmodifiers. The list below shows the form that determiners, premodifiers and postmodifiers can take:

 

Determiners:

the, a, his, her, this, that, some, many, all

Premodifiers:

adjectives – a big red bus

 

adverbs – an extremely late bus

 

nouns – a London city bus

Postmodifiers:

finite relative clauses – the chocolate that I love eating

 

non-finite ‘ing’ clauses – the chocolate oozing through my fingers

 

non-finite ‘ed’ clauses – the chocolate left on my chin

 

non-finite infinitive clauses – the chocolate to use today

 

adjectives – the chocolate, smooth and sensuous

 

prepositional phrases – the chocolate on my fingers

The table below illustrates this by showing how the head noun ladies can be expanded through pre and post modification. 

COUNTABLE NOUNS           

Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count.

 For example: “pen”. We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns:

  • dog, cat, animal, man, person
  • bottle, box, litre
  • coin, note, dollar
  • cup, plate, fork
  • table, chair, suitcase, bag

Countable nouns can be singular or plural:

  • My dog is playing.
  • My dogs are hungry.

We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns:

  • A dog is an animal.

When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it:

  • I want an orange. (not I want orange.)
  • Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?)

When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone:

  • I like oranges.
  • Bottles can break.

We can use some and any with countable nouns:

  • I’ve got some dollars.
  • Have you got any pens?

We can use a few and many with countable nouns:

  • I’ve got a few dollars.
  • I haven’t got many pens.

“People” is countable. “People” is the plural of “person”. We can count people:

  • There is one person here.
  • There are three people here.

UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot “count” them. For example, we cannot count “milk”. We can count “bottles of milk” or “litres of milk”, but we cannot count “milk” itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns:

  • music, art, love, happiness
  • advice, information, news
  • furniture, luggage
  • rice, sugar, butter, water
  • electricity, gas, power
  • money, currency

We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example:

  • This news is very important.
  • Your luggage looks heavy.

We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say “an information” or “a music”. But we can say a something of:

  • a piece of news
  • a bottle of water
  • a grain of rice
  •  

We can use some and any with uncountable nouns:

  • I’ve got some money.
  • Have you got any rice?

We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns:

  • I’ve got a little money.
  • I haven’t got much rice.

Uncountable nouns are also called “mass nouns”.

Here are some more examples of countable and uncountable nouns:

Countable

Uncountable

dollar

money

song

music

suitcase

luggage

table

furniture

battery

electricity

bottle

wine

report

information

tip

advice

journey

travel

job

work

view

scenery

When you learn a new word, it’s a good idea to learn whether it’s countable or uncountable.

Nouns that can be Countable and Uncountable

Sometimes, the same noun can be countable and uncountable, often with a change of meaning.

Countable

 

Uncountable

There are two hairs in my coffee!

hair

I don’t have much hair.

There are two lights in our bedroom.

light

Close the curtain. There’s too much light!

Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise.
There are so many different noises in the city.

noise

It’s difficult to work when there is so much noise.

Have you got a paper to read? (newspaper)
Hand me those student papers.

paper

I want to draw a picture. Have you got some paper?

Our house has seven rooms.

room

Is there room for me to sit here?

We had a great time at the party.
How many times have I told you no?

time

Have you got time for a cup of coffee?

Macbeth is one of Shakespeare’s greatest works.

work

I have no money. I need work!

 

Drinks (coffee, water, orange juice) are usually uncountable. But if we are thinking of a cup or a glass, we can say (in a restaurant, for example):

  • Two teas and one coffee please.

A, AN, THE

When do we say “the dog” and when do we say “a dog”? (On this page we talk only about singular, countable nouns.)

The and a/an are called “articles”. We divide them into “definite” and “indefinite” like this:

Articles

Definite

Indefinite

the

a, an

We use “definite” to mean sure, certain. “Definite” is particular.

We use “indefinite” to mean not sure, not certain. “Indefinite” is general.

When we are talking about one thing in particular, we use the. When we are talking about one thing in general, we use a or an.

Think of the sky at night. In the sky we see 1 moon and millions of stars. So normally we would say:

  • I saw the moon last night.
  • I saw a star last night.

Look at these examples:

the

a, an

  • The capital of France is Paris.
  • I have found the book that I lost.
  • Have you cleaned the car?
  • There are six eggs in the fridge.
  • Please switch off the TV when you finish.
  • I was born in a town.
  • John had an omelette for lunch.
  • James Bond ordered a drink.
  • We want to buy an umbrella.
  • Have you got a pen?

Of course, often we can use the or a/an for the same word. It depends on the situation, not the word. Look at these examples:

  • We want to buy an umbrella. (Any umbrella, not a particular umbrella.)
  • Where is the umbrella? (We already have an umbrella. We are looking for our umbrella, a particular umbrella.)

Possessive Adjectives

We use possessive adjectives to show who owns or “possesses” something. The possessive adjectives are:

  • my, your, his, her, its, our, their
  • whose (interrogative)

number

person

gender

possessive
adjective

example sentence

singular

1st

male/female

my

This is my book.

2nd

male/female

your

I like your hair.

3rd

male

his

His name is “John”.

female

her

Her name is “Mary”.

neuter

its

The dog is licking its paw.

plural

1st

male/female

our

We have sold our house.

2nd

male/female

your

Your children are lovely.

3rd

male/female/neuter

their

The students thanked theirteacher.

 

 

 

 

 

singular/plural

1st/2nd/3rd

male/female (not neuter)

whose

Whose phone did you use?

 

Compare:

your = possessive adjective
you’re = you are

its = possessive adjective
it’s = it is OR it has

their = possessive adjective
they’re = they are
there = adverb (I’m not going there / look over there / there is a car outside)

whose = possessive adjective
who’s = who is OR who has

Some, Any

Some = a little, a few or a small number or amount

Any = one, some or all

Usually, we use some in positive (+) sentences and any in negative (-) and question (?) sentences.

 

some

any

example situation

+

I have somemoney.

 

I have $10.

 

I don’t have anymoney.

I don’t have $1 and I don’t have $10 and I don’t have $1,000,000. I have $0.

?

 

Do you have anymoney?

Do you have $1 or $10 or $1,000,000?

 

Look at these examples:

  • He needs some stamps.
  • I’m thirsty. I want something to drink.
  • I can see somebody coming.
  • He doesn’t need any stamps.
  • I’m not thirsty. I don’t want anything to drink.
  • I can’t see anybody coming.
  • Does he need any stamps?
  • Do you want anything to drink?
  • Can you see anybody coming?

We use any in a positive sentence when the real sense is negative.

  • I refused to give them any money. (I did not give them any money)
  • She finished the test without any difficulty. (she did not have any difficulty)

Sometimes we use some in a question, when we expect a positive YES answer. (We could say that it is not a real question, because we think we know the answer already.)

  • Would you like some more tea?
  • Could I have some sugar, please?

RESOURCE: 

http://www.cybergrammar.co.uk/word_classes_nouns_advanced.php

http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/nouns-un-countable_3.htm

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/phrases/np.htm

http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/adjectives-determiners-possessive.htm

http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/adjectives-determiners-some-any.htm

http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/adjectives-determiners-the-a-an.htm

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